Goldern Gate

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Die Golden Gate Bridge (englisch für Brücke über das goldene Tor) ist eine Hängebrücke am Eingang zur Bucht von San Francisco über das Golden Gate in​. Das Golden Gate (zu Deutsch goldenes Tor) ist eine Meerenge, die den Pazifik mit der Bucht von San Francisco verbindet. Sie ist etwa acht Kilometer lang und. Sie ist die bekannteste Hängebrücke der Welt: die Golden Gate Bridge. Seit trotzt sie der salzigen Gischt, Erdbeben und Verkehrsstaus und sie ist die. Die Golden Gate Bridge ist eine Verbindung zwischen San Francisco und der Halbinsel Marin. Die Bauarbeiten begannen im Januar und dauerten 4 Jahre. Vorbereitung ist die halbe Miete: Besuche die Golden Gate Bridge, das Wahrzeichen von San Francisco! Die wichtigsten Fakten zur.

Goldern Gate

Die Golden Gate Bridge ist eine Verbindung zwischen San Francisco und der Halbinsel Marin. Die Bauarbeiten begannen im Januar und dauerten 4 Jahre. Die Golden Gate Bridge (englisch für Brücke über das goldene Tor) ist eine Hängebrücke am Eingang zur Bucht von San Francisco über das Golden Gate in​. Die Golden Gate Bridge ist noch „spektakulärer“ geworden – neuerdings macht das Bauwerk Geräusche. Was dahinter steckt. The entire shoreline and adjacent waters throughout the strait are managed Stromberg Download the Golden Gate National Recreation Area. Retrieved October 14, Archived from the original on March Online Slots Hulk, Route and California State Route 1 across the strait. Presidio Casino Baden Anfahrt. A cafe, outdoor exhibits, and restroom facilities are located nearby. Aesthetics was the foremost reason why the first design of Joseph Strauss was rejected. Blackjack Anleitung Pdf Rosen Publishing Group. Most die from impact trauma. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Previous Next. United States Coast Guard.

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Ask the Undertaker. Send Files. Best Funeral Ever. Letter of Last Instruction. San Francisco was the largest American city still served primarily by ferry boats.

Because it did not have a permanent link with communities around the bay, the city's growth rate was below the national average. Experts said that ferocious winds and blinding fogs would prevent construction and operation.

Although the idea of a bridge spanning the Golden Gate was not new, the proposal that eventually took hold was made in a San Francisco Bulletin article by former engineering student James Wilkins.

He asked bridge engineers whether it could be built for less. Local authorities agreed to proceed only on the assurance that Strauss would alter the design and accept input from several consulting project experts.

Strauss spent more than a decade drumming up support in Northern California. The Department of War was concerned that the bridge would interfere with ship traffic.

The US Navy feared that a ship collision or sabotage to the bridge could block the entrance to one of its main harbors.

Unions demanded guarantees that local workers would be favored for construction jobs. Southern Pacific Railroad , one of the most powerful business interests in California, opposed the bridge as competition to its ferry fleet and filed a lawsuit against the project, leading to a mass boycott of the ferry service.

In May , Colonel Herbert Deakyne held the second hearing on the Bridge on behalf of the Secretary of War in a request to use federal land for construction.

Deakyne, on behalf of the Secretary of War, approved the transfer of land needed for the bridge structure and leading roads to the "Bridging the Golden Gate Association" and both San Francisco County and Marin County, pending further bridge plans by Strauss.

The bridge's name was first used when the project was initially discussed in by M. O'Shaughnessy , city engineer of San Francisco, and Strauss.

The name became official with the passage of the Golden Gate Bridge and Highway District Act by the state legislature in , creating a special district to design, build and finance the bridge.

Strauss was chief engineer in charge of overall design and construction of the bridge project. Strauss's initial design proposal two double cantilever spans linked by a central suspension segment was unacceptable from a visual standpoint.

The final graceful suspension design was conceived and championed by Leon Moisseiff , the engineer of the Manhattan Bridge in New York City. Irving Morrow , a relatively unknown residential architect, designed the overall shape of the bridge towers, the lighting scheme, and Art Deco elements, such as the tower decorations, streetlights, railing, and walkways.

The famous International Orange color was Morrow's personal selection, winning out over other possibilities, including the US Navy's suggestion that it be painted with black and yellow stripes to ensure visibility by passing ships.

Senior engineer Charles Alton Ellis , collaborating remotely with Moisseiff, was the principal engineer of the project.

He penned a graceful steel arch spanning the fort and carrying the roadway to the bridge's southern anchorage. Ellis was a Greek scholar and mathematician who at one time was a University of Illinois professor of engineering despite having no engineering degree.

He eventually earned a degree in civil engineering from the University of Illinois prior to designing the Golden Gate Bridge and spent the last twelve years of his career as a professor at Purdue University.

He became an expert in structural design, writing the standard textbook of the time. In November , Strauss fired Ellis and replaced him with a former subordinate, Clifford Paine, ostensibly for wasting too much money sending telegrams back and forth to Moisseiff.

With an eye toward self-promotion and posterity, Strauss downplayed the contributions of his collaborators who, despite receiving little recognition or compensation, [23] are largely responsible for the final form of the bridge.

He succeeded in having himself credited as the person most responsible for the design and vision of the bridge. The Golden Gate Bridge and Highway District, authorized by an act of the California Legislature , was incorporated in as the official entity to design, construct, and finance the Golden Gate Bridge.

The bonds were approved in November , [18] by votes in the counties affected by the bridge. However, the District was unable to sell the bonds until , when Amadeo Giannini , the founder of San Francisco—based Bank of America , agreed on behalf of his bank to buy the entire issue in order to help the local economy.

Construction began on January 5, McClintic and Charles D. Marshall, both of Lehigh University. Strauss remained head of the project, overseeing day-to-day construction and making some groundbreaking contributions.

A graduate of the University of Cincinnati , he placed a brick from his alma mater's demolished McMicken Hall in the south anchorage before the concrete was poured.

He innovated the use of movable safety netting beneath the construction site, which saved the lives of many otherwise-unprotected ironworkers.

Of eleven men killed from falls during construction, ten were killed on February 17, , when the bridge was near completion and the net failed under the stress of a scaffold that had fallen.

The platform fell into the safety net, but was too heavy and the net gave way. Nineteen others who were saved by the net over the course of construction became members of the Half Way to Hell Club.

The project was finished and opened May 27, The Bridge Round House diner was then included in the southeastern end of the Golden Gate Bridge, adjacent to the tourist plaza which was renovated in During the bridge work, the Assistant Civil Engineer of California Alfred Finnila had overseen the entire iron work of the bridge as well as half of the bridge's road work.

On December 1, , a windstorm revealed swaying and rolling instabilities of the bridge, resulting in its closure. This bracing stiffened the bridge deck in torsion so that it would better resist the types of twisting that had destroyed the Tacoma Narrows Bridge in The original bridge used a concrete deck.

Salt carried by fog or mist reached the rebar , causing corrosion and concrete spalling. The roadway was also widened by two feet, resulting in outside curb lane width of 11 feet, instead of 10 feet for the inside lanes.

The bridge-opening celebration began on May 27, , and lasted for one week. The day before vehicle traffic was allowed, , people crossed either on foot or on roller skates.

Roosevelt pushed a button in Washington, D. As the celebration got out of hand there was a small riot in the uptown Polk Gulch area.

Weeks of civil and cultural activities called "the Fiesta" followed. A statue of Strauss was moved in to a site near the bridge.

In May , as part of the 50th anniversary celebration, the Golden Gate Bridge district again closed the bridge to automobile traffic and allowed pedestrians to cross the bridge.

However, this celebration attracted , to 1,, people, and ineffective crowd control meant the bridge became congested with roughly , people, causing the center span of the bridge to flatten out under the weight.

Official invitation to the opening of the bridge. This copy was sent to the City of Seattle. Since its main span length has been surpassed by fifteen bridges; it now has the second-longest main span in the Americas , after the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge in New York City.

The weight of the roadway is hung from pairs of vertical suspender ropes, which are attached to two main cables. The main cables pass over the two main towers and are fixed in concrete at each end.

Each cable is made of 27, strands of wire. In the s, when the Bay Area Rapid Transit system BART was being planned, the engineering community had conflicting opinions about the feasibility of running train tracks north to Marin County over the bridge.

The review board's report, released in April , concluded that running BART on the bridge was not advisable. Aesthetics was the foremost reason why the first design of Joseph Strauss was rejected.

Upon re-submission of his bridge construction plan, he added details, such as lighting, to outline the bridge's cables and towers. The color of the bridge is officially an orange vermilion called international orange.

The bridge was originally painted with red lead primer and a lead-based topcoat, which was touched up as required. In the mids, a program was started to improve corrosion protection by stripping the original paint and repainting the bridge with zinc silicate primer and vinyl topcoats.

The program was completed in and it is now maintained by 38 painters who touch up the paintwork where it becomes seriously corroded.

Most maps and signage mark the bridge as part of the concurrency between U. Route and California State Route 1. The Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District has jurisdiction over the segment of highway that crosses the bridge instead of the California Department of Transportation Caltrans.

The movable median barrier between the lanes is moved several times daily to conform to traffic patterns. On weekday mornings, traffic flows mostly southbound into the city, so four of the six lanes run southbound.

Conversely, on weekday afternoons, four lanes run northbound. During off-peak periods and weekends, traffic is split with three lanes in each direction.

From to , opposing traffic was separated by small, plastic pylons ; during that time, there were 16 fatalities resulting from head-on collisions.

The bridge is popular with pedestrians and bicyclists, and was built with walkways on either side of the six vehicle traffic lanes.

Initially, they were separated from the traffic lanes by only a metal curb, but railings between the walkways and the traffic lanes were added in , primarily as a measure to prevent bicyclists from falling into the roadway.

The bridge carries about , vehicles per day according to the Golden Gate Bridge Highway and Transportation District. The western walkway is open only for bicyclists and only during the hours when they are not allowed on the eastern walkway.

Bus service across the bridge is provided by two public transportation agencies: San Francisco Muni and Golden Gate Transit. It opened in , in time for the bridge's 75th anniversary celebration.

A cafe, outdoor exhibits, and restroom facilities are located nearby. Lands and waters under and around the bridge are homes to varieties of wildlife such as bobcats and sea lions.

The District promised that the proposal, which it called a "partnership program", would not include changing the name of the bridge or placing advertising on the bridge itself.

In October , the Board unanimously voted to discontinue the proposal and seek additional revenue through other means, most likely a toll increase.

In addition to FasTrak, the Golden Gate District implemented the use of license plate tolling branded as "Pay-by-Plate" , and also a one time payment system for drivers to pay before or after their trip on the bridge.

Twenty-eight positions were eliminated as part of this plan. Bicycle, pedestrian, and northbound motor vehicle traffic remain toll free.

In March , the Golden Gate Bridge District board approved a resolution to start congestion pricing at the Golden Gate Bridge, charging higher tolls during the peak hours, but rising and falling depending on traffic levels.

In August , transportation officials ended the congestion pricing program in favor of varying rates for metered parking along the route to the bridge including on Lombard Street and Van Ness Avenue.

Most die from impact trauma. After years of debate and an estimated more than 1, deaths, suicide barriers, consisting of a stainless steel net extending 20 feet from the bridge and supported by structural steel 20 feet under the walkway, began to be installed in April As of December , the completion date for the Golden Gate Bridge net was set for Another anemometer was placed on one of the towers.

Starting in June , reports were received of a loud hum, heard across San Francisco and Marin County, produced by the new railing slats when a strong west wind was blowing.

Modern knowledge of the effect of earthquakes on structures led to a program to retrofit the Golden Gate to better resist seismic events.

The proximity of the bridge to the San Andreas Fault places it at risk for a significant earthquake. Once thought to have been able to withstand any magnitude of foreseeable earthquake, the bridge was actually vulnerable to complete structural failure i.

A custom-built electro-hydraulic synchronous lift system for construction of temporary support towers and a series of intricate lifts, transferring the loads from the existing bridge onto the temporary supports, were completed with engineers from Balfour Beatty and Enerpac , without disrupting day-to-day commuter traffic.

Doyle, the president of the Exchange Bank in Santa Rosa and son of the bank's founder, was the man who, more than any other person, made it possible to build the Golden Gate Bridge.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Suspension bridge on the San Francisco Bay. California Historical Landmark.

San Francisco Designated Landmark. Further information: Ferries of San Francisco Bay. Play media. Further information: San Francisco congestion pricing.

Main article: Suicides at the Golden Gate Bridge. Retrieved November 27, Retrieved December 23, Retrieved October 8, City of San Francisco.

Archived from the original on March 25, Retrieved October 21, July 19, Archived from the original on August 2, Retrieved August 30, Frommer's comprehensive travel guide, California ' New York: Prentice Hall Travel.

Frommer's guide to San Francisco. Golden Gate Bridge. Retrieved June 29, Retrieved March 9, San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved October 31, San Francisco Bay Ferryboats.

Howell-North Books. Bay Crossings. Archived from the original on October 23, Construction Equipment Guide. Retrieved May 31, Archived from the original PDF on June 18, Retrieved April 22,

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